electric parts of an ebike

The difference between a bicycle and an e-bike(or electric bicycle, motorized bike, pedelecs you name it) is that e-bike is equipped with a whole set of electric parts, which partly take the place of human power of pedaling forward, therefore saving human energy while keeping at a relevantly quick speed(for instance, the max. Speed permitted by law in EU is 25KM/H, 20 Mile/H(32 KM/H) in US). So what are these parts, and what kind of role they play as part of an e-bike?

In brief, if you want to call a bike as an e-bike, it got to have a battery, a motor, a controller, a pedal assist sensor, a control panel installed on the handlebar, and of course cables connect these together.

1. Battery

Battery is the core of an e-bike, it is the power source to drive the bike forward besides human power, rechargeble and stable. There are mainly 2 kinds, lithium or lead acid, the former one is the future trend, we’ll have another post to discuss them later. Take lithium battery for instance, the basic elements of a lithium battery are, lithium cells, BMS(Battery Manage System), structuring parts to connect the cells together, and the pack.

electric bicycle lithium battery type

2. Motor

Juiced by the battery, motor will run by the power of electricity, same function as an engine to a car, get the wheels running. There are many forms and kinds of motor, geared and gearless, brushed and brushless, hubmotor(front hub or rear hub) and central drive.


3. Controller

Compared to above 2, controller is less noticeable, it’s always hidden in a bag, in a box, integrated with battery or motor, but it’s not less important.All the electric parts are connected to controller, and none of them connected to each other. It’s the controlling and data process center of an e-bike, what does it do? like twisting throttle, throttle passes the signal to controller that”hey bro, our master wants to go faster”, then controller gets more amps from battery to feed motor, and it runs faster as the bike will do the same.

electric bicycle brushless controller

4. Pedal Assist Sensor

In short, PAS sensor. This part is the reason why an e-bike is called Pedelecs in Europe. When you pedal, the pas sensor transfer the signal to controller that”hey dude, wake up the motor, time to get some exercise”, then controller activates motor to run, here to mention that unlike the throttle drive mode, the signal to get motor running here is not continuous, it only activated every time you pedal after a certain angle, detected by magnets in the pas sensor. It’s like you pedal, motor runs, stop pedaling, motor stops too.


5. Control Panel

ebike LCD display

Sometimes simply call it display, while actually “Display” is only part of it’s job, typical functions of a LCD display as below:

5.1. Data display:it shows the riding speed, a single mileage and cumulative mileage, riding time, power-assist gear, motor power and temperature, battery voltage and charge status, brake status and the used ambient temperature and other cycling parameters;

5.2. Intelligent power:a true reflection of the battery charge, real-time recording of the power consumption to ensure riding mileage;

5.3. Stalls setting:multi-gear switch and automatic save of the power-assist gear, and it can restore power-off stall state when turned on;

5.4. Parameter setting:with a number of user parameter setting functions, motor parameters, velocity measurement parameters, speed-limit parameters, power parameters, power-assist control parameters, the minimum controller voltage and maximum current parameters and other operating models for settings adjustment ;

5.5. Data view:Users can view historical driving data and clear accordingly, view single or cumulative riding time, riding mileage, maximum speed and average speed of single riding;

5.6. Vehicle boosting:With 6Km/h power-assisting functions, the boost logo flashes during boosting, and riders can use it when driving the vehicle and the vehicle driving is labor-saving and easy;

5.7. Cadence function:In the assistance mode, the display will show the pedal’s Revolutions Per Minute (RPM); 

5.8. Cruise and constant speed:With the setting and display of the cruise, achieving to automatically maintain the vehicle speed, so that the vehicle drives at a constant speed;

5.9. Night driving:With the functions of LCD backlit display and headlight switch control, instrument backlighting and headlights can be turned on during driving at night;

5.10. Password setting:With three-bit of power-on password setting;

5.11. Automatically prompt:For the appeared failure of the vehicle, it can prompt different fault codes for easy inspection and maintenance of vehicle. With a temperature display for motor operation and it is to achieve the ultra-temperature alarm and motor protection;

5.12. Use five-line of digital communication, the instrument has good compatibility and interchangeability, different instruments can be conducted the data exchanges and parameters copy directly;

5.13. Host part and operation buttons of the meter use sub-structure design, making the operation to be more reasonable and convenient;

5.14.Supply voltage of 24V, 36V, 48V can be automatically identified and compatible

Besides it bears the job to do some work like altering PAS level, turn on/off lights(if it has), that is it’s role in controlling.


6. Cable

There is not much to talk about this. The only thing worth mentioning is that some Chinese factories like us start to higher standard cables that with waterproof plugs like picture below, better water proof, stronger connections.

ebike brushless controller cable type


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